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China

China

The Factory Of The World China

China, Chinese (Pinyin) Zhonghua or (Wade-Giles romanization) Chung-hua, also spelled (Pinyin) Zhongguo or (Wade-Giles romanization) Chung-kuo, officially People’s Republic of China or Chinese (Pinyin) Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo or (Wade-Giles romanization) Chung-hua Jen-min Kung-ho-kuo, country of East Asia. It is the largest of all Asian countries and has the largest population of any country in the world. Occupying nearly the entire East Asian landmass, it covers approximately one-fourteenth of the land area of Earth. Among the major countries of the world, China is surpassed in area by only Russia and Canada, and it is almost as large as the whole of Europe.
China has 33 administrative units directly under the central government; these consist of 22 provinces, 5 autonomous regions, 4 municipalities (Chongqing, Beijing, Shanghai, and Tianjin), and 2 special administrative regions (Hong Kong and Macau). The island province of Taiwan, which has been under separate administration since 1949, is discussed in the article Taiwan. Beijing (Peking), the capital of the People’s Republic, is also the cultural, economic, and communications centre of the country. Shanghai is the main industrial city; Hong Kong is the leading commercial centre and port.

Probably the single most identifiable characteristic of China to the people of the rest of the world is the size of its population. Some one-fifth of humanity is of Chinese nationality. The great majority of the population is Chinese (Han), and thus China is often characterized as an ethnically homogeneous country, but few countries have as wide a variety of indigenous peoples as does China. Even among the Han there are cultural and linguistic differences between regions; for example, the only point of linguistic commonality between two individuals from different parts of China may be the written Chinese language. Because China’s population is so enormous, the population density of the country is also often thought to be uniformly high, but vast areas of China are either uninhabited or sparsely populated.With more than 4,000 years of recorded history, China is one of the few existing countries that also flourished economically and culturally in the earliest stages of world civilization. Indeed, despite the political and social upheavals that frequently have ravaged the country, China is unique among nations in its longevity and resilience as a discrete politico-cultural unit. Much of China’s cultural development has been accomplished with relatively little outside influence, the introduction of Buddhism from India constituting a major exception. Even when the country was penetrated by such “barbarian” peoples as the Manchu, these groups soon became largely absorbed into the fabric of Han Chinese culture.

This relative isolation from the outside world made possible over the centuries the flowering and refinement of the Chinese culture, but it also left China ill prepared to cope with that world when, from the mid-19th century, it was confronted by technologically superior foreign nations. There followed a century of decline and decrepitude, as China found itself relatively helpless in the face of a foreign onslaught. The trauma of this external challenge became the catalyst for a revolution that began in the early 20th century against the old regime and culminated in the establishment of a communist government in 1949. This event reshaped global political geography, and China has since come to rank among the most influential countries in the world.

Central to China’s long-enduring identity as a unitary country is the province, or sheng (“secretariat”). The provinces are traceable in their current form to the Tang dynasty (AD 618–907). Over the centuries, provinces gained in importance as centres of political and economic authority and increasingly became the focus of regional identification and loyalty. Provincial power reached its peak in the first two decades of the 20th century, but, since the establishment of the People’s Republic, that power has been curtailed by a strong central leadership in Beijing. Nonetheless, while the Chinese state has remained unitary in form, the vast size and population of China’s provinces—which are comparable to large and midsize nations—dictate their continuing importance as a level of subnational administration.

For first-time visitors, Beijing, Shanghai, and Xi’an are sure on the top of your travel list. For in-depth travelers, the three major tourist cities also offer much to explore.

The well-know Great Wall, Forbidden City, Summer Palace and Temple of Heaven depict the long and colorful history of Beijing. The waning residential Beijing Hutongs have transformed into pedestrian streets with trendy shops and bars.

Shanghai has become a worldwide metropolis in the last fifty years during last century. From the Bund along the Huangpu River, you can see the city’s rapid development, demonstrated by the great changes of the skyline on the Pudong side.

Xi’an is the shining pearl on the Yellow River along which the ancient Chinese culture originated. The astonishing Terracotta Warriors and Horses of Emperor Qin Shi Huang were excavated in this city and the famous Silk Road started here via brilliant Dunhuang to Europe thousands of years ago.

Winding through eleven provinces and cities, the Yangtze River is the longest river in China. A Yangtze River cruise from Chongqing to Yichang will be an enjoyable holiday with endless green mountains. Comparatively, the picturesque Li River in Guilin is calmer, and the beautiful West Lake in Hangzhou is well cultivated, which is appealing to nature lovers.

Various folk customs and landscapes also formed along these rivers. The cradle of the Yangtze River is on the mysterious Qinghai-Tibet Plateau where you could see the holy Potala Palace, snow-capped Mt. Everest and heavenly Namtso Lake. When the river reaches the lower Sichuan Basin, there are cute giant pandas and multicolored water of the Jiuzhai Valley waiting for you. The Yellow Mountain situated at the lower reaches of the Yangtze River was included in the UNESCO’s World Cultural and Natural Heritage Site List in 1990.

Destinations Around China

Clinics Around China

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